What Causes A Sore Throat?
A sore throat is a symptom of many medical disorders. Infections cause the majority of sore throats and are contagious. Infections are caused either by viruses such as the flu, the common cold, mononucleosis, or by bacteria such as strep, mycoplasma, or Hemophilus.
While bacteria respond to antibiotic treatment, viruses do not.
Viruses: Most viral sore throats accompany flu or colds along with a stuffy, runny nose, sneezing, and generalized aches and pains. These viruses are highly contagious and spread quickly, especially in winter. The body builds antibodies that destroy the virus, a process that takes about a week.
Bacteria: Strep throat is an infection caused by a particular strain of streptococcus bacteria. This infection can also damage the heart valves (rheumatic fever) and kidneys (nephritis), cause scarlet fever, tonsillitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and ear infections.
Tonsillitis is an infection of the lumpy tissues on each side of the back of the throat. Healthy tonsils do not remain infected. Frequent sore throats from tonsillitis suggest the infection is not fully eliminated between episodes. A medical study has shown that children who suffer from frequent episodes of tonsillitis (such as three- to four- times each year for several years) were healthier after their tonsils were surgically removed.
The most dangerous throat infection is epiglottitis, caused by bacteria that infect a portion of the larynx (voice box) and cause swelling that closes the airway. This infection is an emergency condition that requires prompt medical attention. Suspect it when swallowing is extremely painful (causing drooling), when speech is muffled, and when breathing becomes difficult. A strep test may miss this infection.
Allergy: The same pollens and molds that irritate the nose when they are inhaled also may irritate the throat. Cat and dog danders and house dust are common causes of sore throats for people with allergies to them.
Irritation: During the cold winter months, dry heat may create a recurring, mild sore throat with a parched feeling, especially in the mornings. This often responds to humidification of bedroom air and increased liquid intake. Patients with a chronic stuffy nose, causing mouth breathing, also suffer with a dry throat. They need examination and treatment of the nose.
Reflux: An occasional cause of a morning sore throat is the regurgitation of stomach acids up into the back of the throat. To avoid reflux, tilt your bed frame so that the head is elevated four- to six-inches higher than the foot of the bed. You might find antacids helpful. You should also avoid eating within three hours of bedtime and eliminate caffeine and alcohol. If these tips fail, see your doctor.
Tumors: Tumors of the throat, tongue, and larynx (voice box) are usually (but not always) associated with a long-time use of tobacco and alcohol. A sore throat and difficulty swallowing, sometimes with pain radiating to the ear, may be symptoms of such a tumor. More often the sore throat is so mild or so chronic that it is hardly noticed. Other important symptoms include hoarseness, a lump in the neck, unexplained weight loss, and/or spitting up blood in the saliva or phlegm.
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When Should I See a Doctor For A Sore Throat?
Whenever a sore throat is severe, persists longer than the usual five- to seven- day duration of a cold or flu, and is not associated with an avoidable allergy or irritation, you should seek medical attention. The following signs and symptoms should alert you to see your physician:
- Severe and prolonged sore throat
- Difficulty breathing
- Difficulty swallowing
- Difficulty opening the mouth
- Joint pain
- Fever (over 101 degrees)
- Blood in saliva or phlegm
- Frequently recurring sore throat
- Lump in neck
- Hoarseness lasting over two weeks
When Should I Take Antibiotics For A Sore Throat?
Antibiotics are drugs that kill or impair bacteria. Penicillin or erythromycin (well-known antibiotics) are prescribed when the physician suspects streptococcal or another bacterial infection that responds to them. However, a number of bacterial throat infections require other antibiotics instead. Antibiotics do not cure viral infections, but viruses do lower the patient’s resistance to bacterial infections. When such a combined infection occurs, antibiotics may be recommended. When an antibiotic is prescribed, it should be taken as the physician directs for the full course (usually 10 days). Otherwise, the infection will probably be suppressed rather than eliminated, and it can return. Some children will experience recurrent infection despite antibiotic treatment. When some of these are strep infections or are severe, your child may require a tonsillectomy.
Should Other Family Members be Treated or Cultured?
When a strep test is positive, many experts recommend treatment or culturing of other family members. Practice good sanitary habits; avoid close physical contact; and sharing of napkins, towels, and utensils with the infected person. Handwashing makes good sense.
What If My Throat Culture Is Negative?
A strep culture tests only for the presence of streptococcal infections. Many other infections, both bacterial and viral, will yield negative cultures and sometimes so does a streptococcal infection. Therefore, when your culture is negative, your physician will base his/her decision for treatment on the severity of your symptoms and the appearance of your throat on examination.
How Can I Treat My Sore Throat?
A mild sore throat associated with cold or flu symptoms can be made more comfortable with the following remedies:
- Increase your liquid intake.
- Warm tea with honey is a favorite home remedy.
- Use a steamer or humidifier in your bedroom.
- Gargle with warm salt water several times daily: 1/4 tsp. salt to 1/2 cup water.
- Take over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol Sore Throat, Tempra) or ibuprofen (Motrin IB, Advil).
Frequently Asked Questions
How do I get rid of a sore throat quickly?
There are a number of at-home methods to relieve a sore throat, including gargling salt water, lozenges, or herb-based sprays. If a sore throat persists, an ENT specialist can explore heftier treatment options.
How long does sore throat last?
This can depend entirely on the cause. For more acute sore throats, you can expect it to last for a few days. For sore throats that are caused by viruses or bacteria, you can expect it to last a week or so.
When should you go to the doctor for a sore throat?
Sore throats are not usually cause for concern, but they can be if they accompany other symptoms like fever or flu-like symptoms. Additionally, if you have trouble swallowing or eating, or it lasts for longer than two weeks, you should promptly see an ENT specialist.
Nicolette A. Picerno, M.D.
Dr. Nicolette Picerno is double-board-certified with the American Board of Otolaryngology and the American Board of Facial and Reconstructive Surgery. She received her medical degree from Hahnemann University School of Medicine in Philadelphia, PA, and performed her residency at the Medical College of Georgia. She completed a Facial Plastic Surgery Fellowship training in Indianapolis, Indiana. Dr. Picerno is married and has three sons. She enjoys spending time with her family and is an avid tennis player.